تازه های تحقیق
عنوان مقاله [English]
Alluvial fans have a great importance in terms of their high efficiency to create natural aquifer and groundwater storage. Increasing the rate of water demand and relying on groundwater has caused a remarkable decline in groundwater resource and aquifer level. On the other hand, flood spreading is known as an applicable and an effective method for artificial aquifers recharging in arid and semiarid regions. Sabzab and Gotvand plains (fig. 1), in Khuzestan Province, have experienced vivid decline in groundwater-level due to over pumping of aquifer resources, since last decades. Therefore, these plains have been selected to implement methods of artificial recharging of groundwater, especially flood spreading.
The research methodology included comprehensive methods of field observations, application of ArcGIS, 10.3 tools, and modeling. Accordingly, a geographical information system was used for the zoning of the suitable areas to implement artificial recharging by a flood spreading method based on the fuzzy logic model. Imported data for zoning included Landsat ETM+ satellite images (2010, 28.5 m resolution), topographic maps of Gotvand and Sarbishe regions (1:25000 scale), geological map of Dezfol region (1:100000 scale), precipitation data, soil permeability data, and the measurement of the electrical conductivity of floods region. The zoning procedures provided 6 GIS-ready map layers including quaternary deposits of the region, slope, infiltration, electrical conductivity, thickness of alluvium, transmissivity, and drainage density. In the second step, the effective factors were formulated in a fuzzy manner and GIS-Ready layers were overlapped using Sum, and, OR, Product, and Gamma operators. Finally, the zones with high suitability for flood spreading were overlaid over the alluvial fans outcrops.
Results and discussion
Several thematic maps were produced on the basis of the fuzzy method. The suitability zoning as the main objectives of the research was obtained in four classes ranged (fig. 5) from high suitable to unsuitable (table 1). The results showed that high-suitable areas were often at the bottom of the Bakhtiari conglomerate formations and alluvial fans (Fig. 7). In addition, alluvial fans which had mainly composed of coarse size sediments had close genetic relationship with Bakhtiari conglomerate formation and represented the remarkable matching with two high-suitable and suitable classes. The mean rate of 83 % of the different fuzzy operators showed the most comparability with high suitable and suitable areas.
The research hypotheses were successfully confirmed by the resultant data. The present research indicates the importance of geomorphological landforms in terms of artificial groundwater recharge and it should be protected as a source of water. Therefore, incorrect changes to this lands form should be avoided. Furthermore, the fuzzy method has represented a useful manner to find suitable zones for flood spreading. The research method is also recommended to be used in other similar geological conditions in Khuzestan Province.